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Late November 2010

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English Circulan
The Four Standard Languages
Egonyota Pasaru Egonyotatsípog
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yukũa|Elaga ütæk|Qvalsa {{{yukũa!Elaga ütæk!Qvalsa}}}
Cipogrtesaj Cipogrtesaj

The Circular's language of choice is Cipogrtesaj. It is not much spoken outside of Circular, but is the only language there.

A very important note about Cipogrtesaj is not a natural language; it is a large number of languages in Circular generalized and placed in one convenient package. As such, it loses consonants while gaining vowels (which is the reason why vowels are used as the base in the script) and has a very simplistic grammar.


The AlphabetEdit

The alphabet runs:

b p g k q // x j h s c // n ñ d t r // a ä â ô e // ê ë ö o ao // u û î i ü

ASCIIified, that would be:

b p g k q // x j h s c // n m d t r // a ae ay oy e // ey eh oe o ao // u uy iy i ue

In IPA, that would be:

p pʰ k kʰ q // qʰ ʔ ʔ͡h t͡s t͡sʰ // n nʰ t tʰ r // a æ ɑ ɒ e // ɵ ə ø o ʌ // ɯ ʉ ɨ i y

(Double slashes // are placed every five letters to ease counting.)

There are in total 14 consonants in red, 15 vowels in blue and one special letter in green (r).
Cipogrtesaj alphabet

The Ciporgtesaj native script. This is the alphabet version.

One nuance of the transliteration scheme is that iu, i·u with a weak I and i·u with a weak U are not made clear. Thus, On occasion an "u" on a glide is sometimes written "w", and likewise "i" as "y". This is not mandatory and does not affect the orthography.

Occasionally, âo is written ô. The two are interchangeable and should not be corrected.

Syllable structureEdit

Unlike the other three, Cipogrtesaj has a very strict syllable structure and is indicated below:

{Onset} + {Fore glide} + {Nucleus} + {Aft glide} + {Coda} + {r}
  • The onset is the beginning of the syllable. Allowed phonemes are all consonants. It may be absent in a syllable.
  • The fore glide can only be i or u if it exists. It may be absent in a syllable.
  • The nucleus must be present in a syllable. Allowed phonemes are all vowels. The nucleus cannot have the same value as the glides.
  • The aft glide is the same as the fore glide, only (quite obviously) placed after the nucleus.
  • The coda comes at the end of the syllable. Allowed phonemes are the consonants {p, t, k, q, c, j, n} or nothing at all. The word "Cipog" is the only exception.
  • Finally, the cluster avoidance rhotic, must exist if and only if the coda of this syllable and the onset for the next syllable exists. Must be r if it exists.

Phonetic mutationsEdit

Cipogrtesaj has a couple of phonetic mutations that have grown to be around the capital of Vitolajrbai.

  • If "j" appears at the end of a word, it may be pronounced as "h", or even /h/.
  • Should a word ending with "j" not be at the end of a sentence, the /h/ in /ʔh/ can be transferred over to the next word.
  • Voicing of a consonant is not phonemic, but happens to the consonant in the middle of the word, depending on the speaker.
  • "t" can become [θ] in almost all positions.
  • As noted above, Cipogrtesaj is not a natural language. Thus, dialects will often slip in a couple of phonemes that aren't present, such as the V /v/ in the capital name.


Because of its (relatively) restrictive structure, Cipogrtesaj has some very strange transliterations.

In the below definition list, a capital C represents an arbitrary consonant, a capital V represents an arbitrary vowels, and any lowercase characters represent themselves. This is excepted when directly referring to a letter; for example, when referring to the letter R, the phrase is "Rs".

Consonant cluster dissipation
As the letter "r" is used to separate consonant clusters, Rs are commonly seen in foreign loanwords. They are inserted in between the consonants (i.e. -CrC-). If there are more than two consonants (i.e. -CCC-) then an i is inserted (the above example becomes -CrCiC-.) More consonants (-CC...CC-) are become alternating chains of -CrCiC...CiCrC- if the last consonant is a legal ending, else it becomes -CrCikrCrC...CrCikrC-.
R enclosure
All liquids are changed into R. After that, any sequence VrV becomes VkrkV.


Cipogrtesaj syllabary

The complete symbol table of the Cipogrtesaj abugida.

Usually, Cipogrtesaj is written as a syllabary or an abugida, with one syllable being represented with a symbol. This symbol is made from the symbols for a single phoneme indicated by the figure to the left.

The vowel is the main symbol, with the consonants being the modifiers. Glides are indicated by a smaller diacritic.

For vowels that hold more than one consonant (syllables such as "tuj", "dêk", or "piec"), there is a particular method to determine which way round the consonants are:

  • If there is only one consonant that can be a final (the k in "dêk," or the c in "xeic"), then that consonant is immediately determined to be the final.
  • Otherwise (e.g. for syllables such as "caj", "pek" or "caot") check if there is a reversal diacritic (which looks similar to a #) following the syllable:
    • If it is present, the first letter that appears in the list is determined to be the final: n, c, j, k, t, p.
    • If it is absent, the first letter that appears in the list is determined to be the final: p, t, k, j, c, n.
Cipogrtesaj saj

The syllable saj

Here, the j component of the syllable (the big tail) is immediately determined to be the final, because *jas is an illegal syllable.

Cipogrtesaj caj

The syllable caj

Here, the j component of the syllable is determined to be the final as j appears before c in the list above.

Cipogrtesaj jac

The syllable jac

Here, initially the j is determined to be the final. However the reversal diacritic says that we need to switch the "j" and the "c" around, so c is determined to be the final.


A strange feature about the language is that while this is a somewhat peculiar agglutinating language: due to the need for Circulars to get the point across quickly and throwing context to the ground, the words form in odd ways. The general order is:

[Subject(s)] [Verb(s)] [Object(s)] space [Modifiers for Object(s)] space (hâ)[Modifiers for Verb(s)] space (nâ)[Modifiers for Subject(s)] space (dä)[Whole Sentence Modifier(s)]

For example:

I eat food.
Split I eat food.
Gloss Toc íu suín.
Formatted Tocíusuín.
I eat two fish.
Split I eat fish two.
Gloss Toc íu pök cî.
Formatted Tocíupök cî.
Fat cats eat two fish.
Split Cat eat fish two fat, plural.
Gloss Níu íu pök ük, ë.
Formatted Níuíupök cî nâükë.

The words , and appear when ambiguities appear, such as when there are no modifiers for verbs or objects and the adjectives for the subject need to be marked as such. These words come from the word and â, and is used when a modifier causes ambiguity.

This allows some free word ordering, as , and can appear in any order.